What is Organizational Behavior Model?
Meaning of Organizational Behavior Model: – Organizational behavior model is a basic structure that shows the relations between employees at different levels in the organization. Organizational behavior model reflects the behavior of the people and management all together, it is considered as field study not just a discipline. Organization analyze behavior of employees into three basic levels known as OB Model, they are: – Individual level, Group level and Organizational system level.
Organizational behavior revolves around three main theoretical approaches: – cognitive, behaviorist and social learning frameworks. These frameworks became the basis on which the organizational behavior model operates. The cognitive theory was developed by Edward and depends on the expectancy and incentive concepts, while the behaviorist framework created by Ivan Pavlov and John B.Watson relies on observation power. While the social theory depends on how the connection is created between the stimulus and response.
What are the types of Organizational Behavior Model?
In management, the focus is on the study of the five organizational behavior models: –
- Autocratic Model;
- Custodial Model;
- Supportive Model;
- Collegial Model; and
- System Model
Let us take each of the organizational behavior models and discuss.
- Autocratic Model: –
The autocratic model is the model that relies on strength, power and formal authority. The autocratic model depends on power. Managers see authority as the only means to get the things done and employees are expected to follow orders. So it results in the higher dependence on the boss.
In an autocratic organization, the people (management/owners) managing the functions in an organization have formal authority to control the employees working under them. These lower-level employees have little control over the job assignments. His ideas and innovations are generally not welcomed, as major decisions are made at the top management level.
The guiding principle behind this model is that management/owners have extensive business expertise, and the average employee has a relatively low level of skill and needs to be thoroughly directed. This type of autocratic management system was common in factories during the Industrial Revolution era.
One of the more significant problems associated with the autocratic model is that the management team needs to micro-manage the employees – where they have to look at all the details and make every single decision. Clearly, in a more modern-day organization, where highly paid specialists are hired, an autocratic system becomes impractical and highly inefficient.
The autocratic model also opposes job satisfaction and employee morale. This is because employees do not feel valued and part of the overall team. This leads to low level of performance. While the Autocratic model may be suitable for some very automated factory situations, it is out of date for most modern outfits.
- Custodial Model: –
Workers being managed under the autocratic model often feel insecure and disappointed. They may also show aggression towards their boss and their family and neighbours. So progressive managers felt that something must happen ways to develop better employee relations so that insecurities and frustrationscould be removed. The custodial approach induces employees now to show their dependency and loyalty towards the company and not to the boss or managers, or supervisors. The employees in this environment are more psychologically contended and preoccupied with their rewards, but it is not necessary they would be strongly motivated to give the performance.
To overcome the shortcomings of autocratic model, it came into existence. This model is reward based. More emphasis is on economic rewards and benefits to motivate employees.
The custodial model is based on the concept of providing economic security for employees – through pay and other benefits that will create employee loyalty and motivation. In some countries, many professional companies offer health benefits, corporate cars, financial packaging of salaries, etc. – these are incentives designed to attract and retain quality employees.
The underlying principle for the organization is that they will have a more skilled workforce, more motivated employees, and have a competitive advantage through employee knowledge and expertise. The downside with the custodial model is that it also attracts and retains low-performing employees. Or perhaps even some offer low-level motivation from employees who feel they are “stuck” in an organization because the benefits are too good to leave.
- Supportive Model: –
The basic idea behind this theory is that leadership drives people to work not the power of money as in the custodial model. Through leadership Management provides an environment to help employees develop and fulfil the interests of the organization, rather than the only things to support employee benefit payment as per custodial approach.
It works in the public sector organization which is dependent on effective leadership. Here, it is assumed that workers are self directed and creative. Importance in this model is given to psychological needs, self esteem, job satisfaction and friendly relations between superior-subordinate.
Under the supportive model, workers feel a sense of participation and work participation in the organization. The role of the manager is to help the employee and solve their problems and get their work done. This model has been found to be effective in prosperous countries where workers are more concerned about their higher levels need affiliation and esteem.
Unlike the earlier two approaches, the supportive model is centred around ambitious leadership. It is not based on control and authority (autocratic model) or incentives (custodial model), but instead tries to motivate employees through the manager-employee relationship and how employees are treated on a day-to-day basis.
Quite the opposite of the autocratic model, this approach suggests that employees are self-motivated and have the value and insight to contribute to the organization, beyond just their day-to-day role.
This model aims to motivate employees through a positive workplace where their ideas are encouraged and often adapted. Therefore, employees have some form of “buy-in” for the organization and its direction.
The supportive model is widely accepted chiefly in the developed nations where the needs of the employees are different as it fulfills many of the employees emerging needs. This approach is less successful in the developing nations where the social and economic need of the working class is different. In short, in the supportive model, money is not which retain the satisfaction of the employees, but it is a part of the organization’s life that has been put to the use and makes other people feel wanted.
- Collegial Model: –
A useful extension of the supportive model is the collegial model. This word collegial means a body of individuals with a common purpose. The collegial model, which embodies a term concept, first achieved widespread applications in research laboratories and similar work environments. This is a best model based on the partnership between workers and management in which both work together as a team and respect each other. Workers are satisfied by their job and they are committed to the organisation.
The collegial model traditionally was used theory is based on the principle of mutual contribution by employer and employees. Each employee should develop a feeling that he is a part of the whole and contributing something to the whole and recognizes the others contribution. Management is supported to be joint contribution and not the boss.
The collegial model is based on teamwork – everyone working as a peer. The overall environment and corporate culture needs to be aligned with this model, where everyone is actively participating – not just about position and job title – for everyone to work together to make a better organization is encouraged.
The role of the manager is to foster this teamwork and create positive and energetic workplaces. In much more respect, the manager can be considered the “coach” of the team. And as a coach, the goal is to keep the team doing well overall, rather than focusing on their own performance, or the performances of key individuals.
The collegial model is quite effective in organizations that need to find new approaches – marketing teams, research and development, technology/software – virtually anywhere the competitive landscape is constantly changing and ideas and innovation are key competitive success factors.
The success of the collegial model depends on the management’s ability to foster the feeling of partnership between the employees. This makes the employees feel important and needed. They also feel that managers are not just mere supervisors but are also giving their equal contribution to the team. To make the collegial model success many organizations have abolished the use of bosses and subordinates during working, as these terms create the distance between the managers and subordinates. While some of the organizations have abolished the system of allotting reserved space for executives. Now any employee can park their vehicle in the common parking space, which increases their convenience and makes them more comfortable.
- System Model: –
The final organizational model is known as the system model. It is the most contemporary model of the five models discussed in this article. In the system model, the organization looks at the overall structure and team environment, and assumes that individuals have different goals, talents, and abilities. The system model aims to try to balance the goals of the individual with the goals of the organisation.
Individuals obviously want good remuneration, job security, but also want to work in a positive work environment where the organization adds value to the community and/or its customers. The model system should be a holistic partnership of managers and employees with a common goal, and where everyone feels they have a stake in the organization.
In the system model, the expectations of the managers are much more than getting the work done by the employees. The managers have to show their emotional side, be more compassionate and caring towards their team, and they must be sensitive towards the needs of the diverse workforce. They have to devote their attention to creating the feeling of optimism, hope, trustworthiness, courage, self-determination, and through this, they try to develop a positive work culture where the employees feel more at ease and work as if they are working for their family. This ultimately results in the long time commitment and loyalty of the employees and the success of the company.
Characteristics of Organizational Behavior Model (OB)
Characteristics of Organizational Behavior Model are: –
- Separate Field of Study and not a Discipline Only: – Organizational behaivor model is based on multi-interdisciplinary orientation and is, thus, it is not based on a specific theoretical background.
- An Interdisciplinary Approach: – Organizational behavior model is an applied behavioral science built on contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines, mainly psychology and social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.
- Applied Science: – Organizational behaivor model can be called both science as well as art because it involve both applied research and its application in organizational analysis.
- Normative Science: – Organizational behaivor model describes how the findings of applied research can be applied to socially accepted organizational goals whereas the positive science discusses the only cause-effect relationship
- Humanistic and Optimistic Approach: – Organizational behaivor model deals with the people and their interaction with organisations.
- Total System Approach: – System approach is one that integrates all the variables, affecting organizational functioning.
Comparison of Organizational Behavior Models
The following table (Davis, 1967) presents a comparison between the four models of organizational behaviour with respect to its basis, the key managerial psychological consequences for orientation, key employee orientation, employee needs that are met, and ultimate performance or result.
Table 1: Comparison among four models of organisational behaviour (from Davis, 1967, p. 480)
|1.||Basis of model||Power||Economic resources||Leadership||Partnership|
|3.||Employee Orientation||Obedience||Security and benefits||Job performance||Responsible behaviour|
|4.||Employee Psychological Result||Dependence on boss||Dependence on organization||Participation||Self-Discipline|
|5.||Employee needs met||Subsisence||Security||Status and Recognition||Self- actualisation|
|6.||Performance result||Minimum||Passive Co-operation||Awakened drives||Moderate enthusiasm|