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Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) | Legal PaathShala

Exchange Traded Fund (ETF)

Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) is a collection or basket of securities which tracks the performance of its benchmark index. This benchmark index can be BSE Sensex, Nifty 50, S&P BSE Banks etc. When you buy shares or units of an ETF, you are buying shares or units of a portfolio that tracks the yield and return of its native index. An exchange traded fund (ETF) is a basket of securities that trade on an exchange just like a stock does. The unique selling point (USP) of ETFs is the fact that it can be traded on stock exchanges on real-time basis like equity shares. Exchange traded fund is not just a collection of stocks.

Negligence under Tort Law | Legal PaathShala

Negligence under Tort Law

Negligence is a civil tort that occurs when a person breaches his or her duty of care, causing some hardship or some legal injury to that other person. In layman’s terms, Negligence under tort law can be explained as the failure of discharge or the omission to do something due to careless behaviour. Negligence is the amount of damages incurred which is determinative of the extent of liability in tort; but in criminal law it is not the amount of damages but the amount and degree of the negligence that is determinative of liability.

Formal Organization and Informal Organization | Legal PaathShala

Formal Organization and Informal Organization

An organization is a collection of people who work together to attain specified objectives. There are two types of organization structure, that can be formal organization and informal organization. A formal organization is an organization with a fixed set of rules of intra-organization procedures and structures. On the other end, there is an informal organization which is formed under the formal organization as a system of social relationship, which comes into existence when people in an organization, meet, interact and associate with each other.

Net Zero Emissions by 2050 | Legal PaathShala

Net Zero Emissions by 2050 | COP26 Climate Summit

Achieving zero emissions means releasing no greenhouse gases to the atmosphere—that is, no carbon dioxide (CO2), no methane, no nitrous oxide or other greenhouse gases. Achieving net zero emissions means that some greenhouse gases are still released, but these are offset by removing an equivalent amount of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere and storing it permanently in soil, plants, or materials. Speaking at the COP26 summit, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said that India will aim for Net Zero Carbon Emissions by 2070



A cryptocurrency (or “crypto”) is a digital currency that can be used to buy goods and services, but uses an online ledger with strong cryptography to secure online transactions. A cryptocurrency is a medium of exchange that is digital, encrypted and decentralized that can be exchanged for goods and services online. Many companies issue their own currencies, often called tokens, and can be traded exclusively for a good or service provided by the company. According to market research website CoinMarketCap.com, more than 10,000 different cryptocurrencies are publicly traded.

Mutual Funds

Mutual Fund

A mutual fund is a company that collects money from many investors and invests the money in securities such as stocks, bonds, and short-term debt or loans. The combined holdings of the mutual fund are known as its portfolio. Investors buy shares in mutual funds. Each share represents an investor’s part ownership in the fund and the income it generates. Mutual funds collects the money from an investment community and then use that money to buy other securities, usually shares and bonds. The value of a mutual fund company depends on the security performance it decides to purchase.

Managing Conflicts | Legal PaathShala

Managing Conflicts

Managing Conflicts is the process of limiting the negative aspects of conflict while increasing the positive aspects of conflict. The aim of conflict management is to enhance learning and group outcomes, including effectiveness or performance in an organizational setting. Properly managed conflict can improve group outcomes. The basis of conflict may vary but it is always a part of society. Basis of conflict may be personal, racial, class, caste, political and international.

INVESTMENT | Legal PaathShala


An investment is essentially an asset that has been created with the intention of allowing money to grow. An investment involves putting capital to use today in order to increase its value over time. You should start your investment as early as possible. When it comes to investing, time is money. The sooner you start, and the longer you stay invested, the higher the return you earn on your investment. By investing at an early stage of life, you learn a pattern of financial independence and discipline.

Insurance Policy | Legal PaathShala

Insurance Policy

Insurance Policy is a contract in which a person or entity receives financial protection or reimbursement from an insurance company against losses. The insurance policy is a contract between the insurer and the policyholder, which determines the claims which the insurer is legally required to pay. In exchange for an initial payment, known as the premium, the insurer promises to pay for loss caused by perils covered under the policy language. The company pools the risks of the customers to make the payment more affordable for the insured.

Incoming Partners and Outgoing Partners | Legal PaathShala

Incoming Partners and Outgoing Partners

Incoming Partners are the partners who are joining the partnership firm by contract or is added to the firm. Incoming Partners are the new partners who get admitted to the firm. The incoming partners are the partner who are joining the partnership firm by contract. Outgoing partner is a partner who is going to leave a particular firm purposely or to he/she might be died or expelled by a firm. There are various criteria to leave the partnership firm which are given in the Indian Partnership Act,1932.


Oligopoly: Price Rigidity and Price Leadership

Oligopoly is a structural type of market, consisting of and dominated by a small number of firms. It can be described as a form of ‘imperfect competition’ where the actions of a firm significantly influence the other firms in the market. This is in stark contrast to monopolies, where a single firm controls the entire market. An oligopoly is when a very few companies exert significant control over a given market. Together, these companies may control prices by colluding with each other, ultimately providing uncompetitive prices in the market.

Long-Term Assets | Legal PaathShala

The Cost of Long-Term Assets

Long-term assets are also known as non-current assets or long-lived assets, that are expected to provide economic benefits over a future period, typically longer than one year. Long-term assets can be tangible, intangible or financial assets. Long-term assets are investments in a company that will benefit the company for many years. Long-term assets can include fixed assets such as a company’s property, plant, and equipment, but can also include intangible assets, which can’t be physically touched such as long-term investments or a company’s trademark.

Rights of the Dead Person | Legal PaathShala

Rights of the Dead Person

It is a concept from earlier times that dead bodies have the right to rest and should not be disturbed in any way. Most civilizations, religions and culture have all accepted this concept and they follow it. Recently what we have witnessed is undignified treatment and disposal of the dead bodies of Covid-19 patients. This amounts to grave infraction of the citizen’s ‘right to die’ with dignity. Despite all these horrific examples, India does not have a specific law in this regard. Although offenders are charged under Section 297 (trespassing on corpses) and Section 377 (Unnatural Sex) of the Indian Penal Code.

Rights and Duties of Bailor and Bailee | Legal PaathShala

Rights and Duties of Bailor and Bailee, Lien

A bailor is a person who temporarily gives the possession of goods or property but not the ownership under the bailment. The temporary possession of the goods or property is given by the bailor to another person who is known as bailee. A lien is a claim or legal right against assets that are typically used as collateral to satisfy a debt. A lien could be established by a creditor or a legal judgement. A lien serves to guarantee an underlying obligation, such as the repayment of a loan.

Partnership Firm

Nature of the Partnership Firm

When two or more people join hands to set up an enterprise or business and share its profits and losses, they are said to be in Partnership or Partnership Firm . Persons who have entered into partnership with one another to carry on a business are individually called “Partners“; collectively called as a “Partnership Firm”; and the name under which their business is carried on is called the “Firm Name”.

Principal-Agent Problem

Principal-Agent Problem

The principal-agent problem is a conflict in priorities between an individual or group and the representative authorized to represent them and act on their behalf. The agent may act in a manner contrary to the interests of the principal. A discrepancy in interests between a person or group of people and the official approved to act on their behalf is known as the ‘principal-agent problem’.

Difference between Indemnity and Guarantee

Difference between Indemnity and Guarantee

Indemnity and Guarantee are a type of contingent contracts, which are governed by Indian Contract Act, 1872. Indemnity is a contract in which one party promises the other that it will compensate him for any losses incurred to him, i.e., any loss incurred by the promoter or third party. Whereas guarantee is a contract when a person signs an agreement to execute a contract or discharge an obligation incurred by a third party, the guarantee is contracted, if he fails, on behalf of the other party.

Doctrines under Indian Constitution

Doctrines under Indian Constitution

Doctrines under Indian Constitution are codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system. Doctrines are “a rule, principle, theory, or tenet of the law; as, the doctrine of merger, the doctrine of relation, etc”. Doctrine is defined as a principle or group of principles which are taught by a religion or political party. An example of doctrine is the teaching of the Ten Commandments in Christianity. Read more to know all the Doctrines that are applied in Indian Constitution.

Definition of Constitution and its Classification | Legal PaathShala

Definition of Constitution and its Classification

A constitution is a basic design, which deals with the structure and powers of government. It also includes the rights and duties of citizens. Often a ‘constitution’ is understood as a document that is written and accepted at a particular time, but it is not the true meaning of the constitution, the constitution may be written or unwritten. Sometimes it is found as an established body of rules, maxims, traditions, and practices according to which its government is organized and its powers are being exercised.

Indian Constitution Salient Features | Legal PaathShala

Salient features of Indian Constitution

Salient features of Indian Constitution, as we all know is the supreme law of the country and every citizen of our country has to follow the constitution. The Indian constitution is a very detailed constitution. The Constitution of India is considered as a distinctive constitution around the globe. It is the largest written liberal democratic constitution of the world. It offers for a mixture of federalism and Unitarianism, and flexibility and with rigidity. The Constitution of India was outlined by a Constituent Assembly.

Profit in a Market System

When a firm’s revenue is greater than its costs, that firm earns a profit in a market system. When a firm’s costs are greater than its revenue, that firm suffers a loss in a market system. When all of a company’s expenses have been paid, profit is the remaining income. Profit can be described as a monetary benefit given to a company’s owners or shareholders. Benefit plays an important role in providing incentives for businesses and entrepreneurs in such a capitalist economy.

The Circular flow of Economic Activity

The Circular flow of Economic Activity

The circular flow of economic activity is an economic model that shows the flow of money through the economy. This model shows the most common circular flow of income between the household sector and the business sector. In economics, there are four types of resources, known as factors of production. Each factor of production has a specific type of payment associated with it, which is called factor payment.

nature of control

Nature and Scope of Control

Control or controlling can be defined as a systematic process through which managers make sure that organizational activities are in line with the goals and objectives established in plans, targets, and standards of performance. Nature of Control is that it’s a Function of Management based on Planning. Scope of control is a primary goal-oriented task of management in an organization. Control is a Dynamic Process.

Control Process

Control is one of the most important functions of management. Its main objective is to ensure that the activities of an organization are proceeding according to plan. The control process of implementing all managers consists of several stages. Each of these is equally important and plays a large role in effective management.The control process of management ensures that every activity in a business is pursuing its goals. This process basically helps managers to evaluate the performance of their organization.

Witch Hunting- Legal PaathShala

Witch Hunting: An Evil still Alive

Witch hunting is not a concept of the past, it’s greatly alive today in rural parts of India. In today’s scenario, witch hunting, women are tortured, robbed, and killed for being labelled as a witch. Despite being a nefarious practice of the first modern period, India is deplorably one amongst the few countries round the world that also witnesses horrid cases of witch hunting. Women are beaten, tortured, burned, raped, and murdered, dead the name of witch-hunts.

Supreme court | Legal PaathShala

Judicial system in India

The judicial system or court system is also known as the judiciary system. The court has the power to decide and enforce the law, resolve disputes. The judicial system or judiciary consists of judges and other magistrates; they form the bench or core of the judiciary system. The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicial branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of courts that adjudicates legal disputes and interprets, defends and applies law in legal cases.

Principles of Natural Justice | Legal PaathShala

Principles of Natural Justice

Principles of natural justice simply means to make a sensible and reasonable decision making procedure on a particular issue. Principles of natural justice are not rules nor codified laws, they are judge-made rules and are believed to be equivalent to the US procedural due process. Principles of natural justice are of great importance in the study of administrative law. It is also known that there is fair play in substantial justice or fundamental justice or universal justice or action.

Separation of powers | Legal PaathShala

Separation of powers

The separation of powers is exemplary for the administration of federations and democratic states. Separation of powers is a doctrine of constitutional law under which the three branches of government are kept separate. This is also known as the system of checks and balances, because each branch is given certain powers so as to check and balance the other branches.

pseudo feminism | Legal PaathShala

Pseudo Feminism

When people think that it is absolutely fine to demean men in the society or to suppress them or to dominate them or to create violence against them and thinking that they’re feminists and can do anything as they have the power to do so, this way of thinking and putting men down to overpower them is known as “Pseudo Feminism”.

Law, Justice and Morality | Legal PaathShala

Law, Justice and Morality

Justice and morality are commonly used in law. Although they are all part of the same system and have many common factors, it cannot be ignored that they imply different meanings in the legal term. Before understanding the interrelationship of law justice and morality, it is necessary to understand their personal meaning.

farmers protest | Legal PaathShala

Protest over farm laws in Haryana and Punjab

For the past few days, 26 November 2020, thousands of farmers from Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh have been marching towards the national capital and are gathering at the borders. The farmers have decided, through the Delhi Chalo March or Delhi Chalo Protest, to pressurize the government to withdraw the recently passed agricultural laws, and begin collecting at various entry points in the national capital, including the Tikri and Singhu borders.

Organizational Politics | Legal PaathShala

Organizational Politics

Organizational politics are informal, unofficial, and sometimes behind efforts to sell ideas, influence an organization, increase power, or achieve other targeted objectives. Political behavior in organizations involves many activities such as spreading rumors, leaking confidant information, favoring others in the organization for mutual benefit. Organizational Politics is self-serving behavior not approved by the organization.

Plea Bargaining | Legal PaathShala

Plea bargaining

It is the practice of negotiating an agreement between the prosecution and the defense whereby the defendant pleads guilty to a lesser offense or (in the case of multiple offenses) to one or more of the offenses charged in exchange for more lenient sentencing, recommendations, a specific sentence, or a dismissal of other charges.

Inherent Powers of Court | Legal PaathShala

Inherent Powers of Court

Inherent power of Court are those powers which are not subject to be taken away from the courts and can be used by the court to do full and satisfied justice between the parties before it.Whether civil or criminal, in the absence of prohibition of procedure, may be considered as inherent powers of court enshrined in its constitution, which may be necessary to do justice and not to do wrong while providing justice.

Law Of Contract | Legal PaathShala

Meaning, Nature and Scope of Contract

Meaning of contract: A contract means an agreement, which is enforceable by law. An agreement consists of reciprocal (mutual) promises between the two parties. In the case of contract each party is legally bound by the promise made by them.

electronic signature | Legal PaathShala

Online Contracts

Online Contracts are also known as e-contracts. Online contracts are an agreement made and "signed" in electronic form - no paper is used. An example is a contract that you write on your computer and email to a business associate and that the business associate accepts the email with an electronic signature.

Definition of Transfer of Property | Legal PaathShala

Definition of Transfer of Property

Definition of 'Transfer of property' is defined under 'section 5' of the Act. Transfer of property is an act by which a living person transfers property in present or in future to one or more living persons or himself. The transfer of property is a contract, so all requirements have to be met to constitute a valid contract.

Movable Property | Legal PaathShala

Difference between Movable and Immovable Property

Personal property is generally considered to be the movable property. Immovable property commonly refers to real estate (such as your house, factory, manufacturing plant, etc.) while movable property refers to movable assets (such as your computer, jewellery, vehicles, etc.).

Leadership-vs-management | Legal PaathShala

Leadership vs. Management

Leadership is the action of leading a group towards a common goal. It is the process of dealing with or controlling things or people. But the emphasis is on things rather than people. Managers are people who plan, organize and coordinate. They are organized and are always assuring their process to ensure that they are proceeding according to plan.

Management vs Administration | Legal PaathShala

Management vs. Administration

Management deals with the course of operations, control and action. Administration is concerned with managing different things. Broadly, management takes into account the directing and controlling functions of the organization, while administration is concerned with the function and planning.

Cognizable and Non-Cognizable Offence | Legal PaathShala

Cognizable and Non-Cognizable Offence

Section 2 (c) of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 defines cognizable offences. A non-cognizable offence has been defined in Section 2(l) of Criminal Procedure Code 1973. In cognizable offences, the police officer can arrest without warrant. In Non-Cognizable offences police officer cannot arrest without warrant.

difference between void and voidable contract

Effect of Void, Voidable, Valid, Illegal, Unlawful Agreements

Chapter 2 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 discusses voidable contracts and void agreements. Based on validity or enforceability, we have five different types of contracts as given below. A Valid Contract is an agreement that is legally binding and enforceable. It must qualify all the essentials of a contract.

Bailable and Non-Bailable Offence | Legal PaathShala

Bailable and Non-Bailable Offence

Bailable offences are crimes or offenses that are not very serious in nature. Section 2(a) of the code of criminal procedure defines Bailable offences. Non-bailable offence are serious offenses where bail is a privilege and only the courts can approve it. Section 437 of the code of criminal procedure defines Non-Bailable offences.

Charge under CrPC | Legal PaathShala

Charge under CrPC

Charge under crpc is defined under section 2(b) of the code of criminal procedure inclusively. According to this section, the charge includes any head of the charge when there are more than one heads. The main objective of Charge under crpc is to give basic and exact knowledge to accused of the offence that he has been charged for it and also give him time to prepare for his Defense.

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